ATUNGALE MUNINGA Alphonse*1, MUSIBONO Dieudonné2, MANSIANGI Paul3, METELO Emery4, ATUNGALE Steve Cele5

Types of Anopheles Causing Malaria and the Anti-vectorial Approaches Used in Households in Ngaba Health Zone, Kinshasa (RD Congo)

The Ngaba health zone is located in the city of Kinshasa in the DRC and has a population of 254,947, a large proportion of which suffers from malaria (69.1% for the year 2017), a rate far higher than in the others surrounding health zones. This situation results from a significant proliferation of anopheles in the site. This study was conducted to identify the types of Anopheles causing malaria and to examine vector control approaches used in households in the Ngaba Health Zone. A better understanding of these factors will contribute to more effective mitigation measures or even elimination of this condition. A total of 41 houses were visited in the 6 districts of Ngaba and 658 mosquitoes were captured. Almost all mosquitoes were Anopheles Gambiae sl. To protect themselves against these mosquitoes, respondents use impregnated mosquito nets (LLINs) and spray their homes with insecticides. However, 22% of households never used insecticides. We recommend the involvement of non-governmental organizations and civil society to educate household members about vector control. Télécharger l'article

KIKOZOKOZO KIKOZOKOZO Dieudonné1*, IFUTA NDEY Seraphin1, METELO MATUBI Emery2, MANSIANGI MANKADI Paul2

Characterization of Breeding Types Aedes sp Larval Sites in Kinshasa/Mont Ngafula after Chikungunya 2018-2019 Epidemic.

In February 2018, Kinshasa was confronted with an epidemic disease with Chikungunya virus. Mont Ngafula area was the epicenter of the epidemic. This situation was observed after the mass campaign vaccination against fellow fever imported from Angola in 2016.In order to contribute for the improvement of antivectorial strategies, a transversal study was carried out to describe the characteristics home of production of Aedes sp and the transmission risks of Chikungunya virus in the population. It is an ecological study of the correlation type carried out during the Chikungunya virus epidemic, from june to august 2019 investigations were carried out in four quarters of Mont Ngafula and larva were collected in water containers inside and outside houses. Four hundred (400) houses were selected with a survey step of 5. The entomological indices were calculeted and interpreted according to OMS norms and criteria. From a total of 738 breeding sites prospected 52 % were positive, 69,7% were located outside houses. Aedes sp presented 77 % of all mosquitos specimen identified after breeding pre- imaginal forms. Breteau Index (BI) house (HI) and (CI) index obtained in the 4 quarters were above the threshold of OMS HI (59%,67%,77%,51%) CI (57,4 %, 60,5%, 73,7%, 32%) IB (96%, 63%,135%, 91%) . Chemical and physical conditions of water and their dimensional structure show strong influence on larval density. Environmental sanitation should be promoted to reduce larval density. Télécharger l'article

TANZO MANGWINI Arnold1*, DJANYA OTSHUDI Benoit2, LUBUNDA MANDUNGU3, KHONDE KHONDE Joachim4, LUMUMBA TAMBWE Robert5

Production of Okra on Different Organic Substrates (cow dung, Guano and tithonia diversifolia) under Ecological Conditions of Bandundu-City (D.R. Congo)

In order to optimize the production of okra (Hibuscus esculenta) under the ecological conditions in the city of Bandundu,various organic substrates were applied. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of different organic substrates on the growth and production of okra under agroecological conditions in the city of Bandundu. Okra seeds ( Hibuscus esculenta), clemson spinilles variety ,were used. The study was conducted from September 11 to November 30, 2020 at the site of Radio Télévision Nationale Congolaise (RTNC) In Bandundu. The experimental device used was the in latin- square with four treatments repeated four times. The area of experimental field was 14x10 m. The treatments applied are as follows T0 control), T1 (5 kg of Guano per treatment), T2 (5 kg cow dung per treatment) ,T3 ( 5 kg of tithonia diversifolia) vegetative and production parameters. Statistical analysis of the data was perfomed using Excel 2010 and Statistix software. The results obtained indicate that the application of cow dung significantly influenced the vegetative development of okra. The highest height was observed in plants with cow dung treatment (T1). Control plots (T0) gave low production. Further investigations will concern determination of the use of cow dung capable of promoting the increase in okra yield in the city of Bandundu. Télécharger l'article

TSHILUMBA MUKADI Théodore*1, KABEYA KASONGO Djoska1, KAZADI BATUBENGA Alain2, CHIWENGO BANDA David3

Adaptation Study of Different Soybean Varieties [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] Introduced in the Eco-climatic Conditions of Gandajika, DR Congo

The Democratic Republic of Congo experienced difficulties in the early 2000s following a soybean yield of 23 q / ha to 12 q / ha caused by the bacterial pustule following the introduction of the preventive Hermon and Kaleya varieties from Zambia to INERA, Center of Gandajika. Thirty considerate introduced soybean varieties from Zambia plus one control (AFYA) were subjected to an agronomic and phytosanitary suitability study. The objective was to select varieties most adapted to the environmental conditions of the area. A Fisher block device having three (3) replicates was adopted with different variables including vegetative, reproductive and phytosanitary were analyzed with the STATISTIX 8.0 software. The results prove that the varieties S / 036/5/31, SC SERENADE, SC SAFARI, S / 136/5/50, SC SAXON, S / 136/5/40, S / O82 / 5/69, S / 021 / 05/104 were best for their adaptability and seed yield varying between 3 q/ha and 5 q/ha obtained in the medium. No significant difference was observed in the phytosanitary parameters; which testifies to their resistance or tolerance to bacterial pustule and rust. The varieties S / 036/5/31, SC SERENADE, SC SAFARI, S / 136/5/50, SC SAXON, S / 136/5/40, S / O82 / 5/69, S / 021/05/104 , behaved better despite their high susceptibility to crop season A and crop season B, the varieties S / 116/5/30, SCSTING (WHIT) were selected for their low levels of damage and S / 136/5/27 , S / 136/5/50, SC SAXON plus SCSTING (WHIT) for their susceptibility to bacterial pustule. Télécharger l'article

TELAMANU BAFWANGA Edouard1*, TSHIKUNG KAMBOL Mosses Didier2, MALEMBA NSAKILA Gilbert3, PYANA PATI Patient1-4, KASONGO ASEKE Grégoire2

Human-Wildlife Conflicts: State of Play of the Predation of Domestic Animals by Wildlife in the Kongo Central Province in D.R. Congo.

A study was carried out in the Province of Kongo Central from 2017 to 2020 with the following objectives: to determine the proportion of pastoralists victims of predation by Territory, to identify the most domestic animal species more targeted by predation and to determine the overall economic impacts of predation at the province level. Tao achieve this, semi-structured surveys based on guided interviews were carried out among the populations of 8 Territories out of the 10 in the Province. The sample size was 2.321 respondents chosen by the random sampling technique. The administration of the questionnaire was carried out by the so- called "PAPI" technique. The results showed that the territory of Moanda recorded the highest proportion of herders victims of predation (98,51 %), on the other hand it was the lowest in Mbanza-Ngungu (63,76 %). Compared to the most predated species, it turned out that the hen is in 1st place among other farmyard species in 86,66 % of recorded cases while the goat is in 1st position in 98.3% cases among other domestic mammals. As for the economic impacts due to predation, it appears that they are of the order of US $ 670.251.00 for all 1.897 breeders surveyed, an average of US $ 353 per individual, this constitutes a great loss. Reported at the scale of all breeders in the province, it appears that predation is a real concern and a source of wildlife conflict. This raise the adversity of rural people to wild species. It is thus, measures must be taken with to mitigate conflicts generated by predation in the hope of preserving wild animal populations. Télécharger l'article

MUANZA NYENGELE Jean Louis*1, TSHIBASSU MANYANGA Pierre1, AHUKA-MUNDEKE Steve2, MBALA KANGOY Justin1, MUKADI BAMULEKA Daniel2, NKUADIOLANDU Adolphine1.

Carriage of Hepatitis B Virus Antigens in New Mother and their Newborns in Kinshasa

The Democratic Republic of Congo is one of the regions with a high prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus HBs Antigen (HBsAg). The transmission is generally vertical and/or horizontal. The majority of children infected at birth progress to chronicity and many eventually develop cirrhosis or liver cancer, often at the age of young adults. This cross-sectional study focused on the mothers and their newborns in maternity wards of 5 hospitals selected for it. Sociodemographic and clinical data as well as a blood sample were collected from each mother- child pair. ELISA techniques were performed to look for HBV serological markers (HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBcAb) in women who gave birth and HBsAg in their newborns. A hundred and sixteen (116) women delivered and hundred and eighteen (118) newborns, including twins were included in this study. The mean age of mothers was 27.9 ± 6.4. HBsAg was found in 6 out of 116 deliveries (5.2%); HBcAb was found in 41 women (35.3%); HBeAg was absent in all HBsAg positive mothers. All newborns were tested negative for HBsAg. Blood transfusion, jaundice and multiparity were risk factors associated with the carriage of HBsAg by women who have given birth. HBV HBsAg carriage is common among mothers in Kinshasa. The risk of vertical transmission in the perinatal period remains high. Télécharger l'article

NGOMBO-NZOKWANI Augustin*1, NSUMBU NLANDU Pierre1, LUBOBO KANYENGA Antoine4,5, MUENGULA-MANYI Marcel2, KALONJI-MBUYI Adrien2,3.

Evaluation of Anti-Nutritional Factors of Some Genotypes of Biofortified of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Micronutrient malnutrition, inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals such as iron and zinc, has a negative impact on human health. To reduce this malnutrition, biofortified crops are recommended to raise the content of micronutrients in food. However, anti-nutritional factors limit the bioavailability of micronutrients. The objective of this work is to evaluate the anti- nutritional factors of a few biofortified genotypes of common beans. To do this, we have carried out a chemical screening to determine the presence or absence of anti-nutritional compounds. The results indicate the presence of a great variability of anti-nutritional factors, primarily polyphenols followed by others compounds in moderate quantities such as alkaloids, saponins, steroid phytates and oxalates. All these compounds are destroyed by appropriate cooking with the exception of oxalates in two genotypes, G 59/1-2 and CODMLB 086. The determination of total polyphenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids gave maximum values of 13 grams per kilogram dry matter of gallic acids, 0.42 grams per kilogram dry matter of quercetin and 10.05 grams per kilogram dry matter respectively. These values are significantly higher than those found in other pulses. The high levels of iron, zinc, selenium, and vitamin C (6.5; 5.5; 1.2; and 8.0 mg/100g M.S., respectively) in all biofortified genotypes show that they have antioxidant properties, essential for combating free radicals. Télécharger l'article

KIKAKEDIMAU NAKWETI Rufin1,2, ISASU VULAMBONGO Guelord2, MULWELE NDOMBE Frederick2, MUNONGO BIKUMA Rossy3

Phytochemical Screening of Inventoried Tannin Plants at Kenge in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

The purpose of this study was to inventory the plant species used in the tanning work at Kenge and to scientifically justify these uses through the dosage of tannins contained in each plant. The approach was first to conduct survey to learn about the plants used in tanning work by approaching people who work in said. Then, it was necessary to verify the presence of tannins and other phenolic compounds in the extracts of different plants harvested by using chemical reagents such as Shinoda's reagent for flavonoids, Stiasny's reagent for tannins, etc. Third, it was essential to quantify the tannin contents by the spectrophotometric method in each plant in order to justify the use of each of them by tanner workers. For this, two solvents, water and methanol, were used to obtain the extracts used for chemical screening and the water - glacial acetic acid mixture for the quantitative determination of tannins by spectrophotometry.

Ethnobotanical surveys carried out with many tanners according to each individual's expertise have made it possible to identify overall 28 species of tannin plants grouped into 22 genera and 15 families. Phytochemical study of extracts from 11 randomly selected plants revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, quinones, anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, terpenes and steroids. The tannin contents determined by spectrophotometry varied from 0.01 ± 0.0 mg EAT.g.-1 of dry matter for C. welwitschii to 0.55 ± 0.17 mg EAT.g.-1 of Dry matter for D. edulis. With this tannin content, D. edulis as well as three other plants including E. africanum(0.21 ± 0.02 mg EAT.g.-1 of dry matter), B. ferruginea (0.16 ± 0.02 mg EAT.g.-1 of dry extract) and H. acida (0.11 ± 0.04 mg EAT.g.-1 of dry Dry matter) showed values exceeding the general average, i.e. 0.12 mg EAT .g.-1 extract. Thus, the use of these plants in the tanning work was justified. Télécharger l'article

NGILA MBENGA Junior1,2, MVINGU KAMALANDUA Bienvenu, MAWETE DANI Thiery1, MBANGA LUKEBO Jean-Aime1, MBALA MAVINGA Blaise1*

Criblage Phytochimique, Contenu Total des Métabolites Secondaires et Capacité Antioxydante Totale in vitro des Extraits de Boerhavia diffusa Linn Poussant à Kinshasa (RD Congo).

Le criblage phytochimique et l’estimation quantitative des métabolites secondaires des extraits des feuilles, des tiges et des racines de Boerhavia diffusa Linn de la RD Congo ont été effectués et la capacité antioxydante totale correspondante évaluée. Les extraits au dichlorométhane (DCM), au méthanol (MeOH), au mélange dichlorométhane-méthanol (MeOH/DCM) et de l’eau ont été préparés. Le criblage phytochimique a révélé une large gamme de métabolites secondaires et lors de l'extraction, les racines ont fourni un rendement le plus élevé, suivi des tiges et ensuite des feuilles. Quantitativement, les polyphénols ont été les métabolites secondaires majoritaires (15,54 ± 3,42~62,42 ± 3,25) μgAG/g dans DCM, MeOH et MeOH/DCM suivis par les flavonoïdes (8,23 ± 0,33~15,72 ± 0,28) μg QE/g dans l’eau. Les tannins et les alcaloïdes sont considérables dans les systèmes de solvants DCM, méthanol et mélange dichlorométhane-méthanol. Les concentrations les plus élevées ont été observées dans les extraits de la tige. Les extraits de feuilles ont présenté la capacité antioxydante totale la plus élevée. Ceci justifie l'utilisation de la plante en médecine traditionnelle pour traiter les affections liées à l'oxydation. Télécharger l'article

MUYA LUBILANJI Gustave-Charles

The present study is about the use of teledetection and the S.I.G, in detection of gullying erosion in the N’sele Commune.

Results obtained are expressed on four maps : the hydrographic lineaments , the major anthropic lineaments (LIAMA), the indicators other than lineaments, as well as the gullies map. The first one holds forty-eight (48) lineaments representing sections of water streams, water drains from rainy waters ; the second includes one thousand seven hundred eighty nine Liama (1789) showing streets, avenues and roads of which three hundred and four (304) units are perpendicular to the direction of water flowing from the site and constitute possible development areas of erosion ; the third map shows ruined building bits, probable real signs of erosion existence ; the fourth which is the result of the additive combination of the first three in the S.I.G shows the gullying erosion authenticated on the ground. Télécharger l'article